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Effective grounding system (large current grounding system) Small current grounding system (with ungrounded and arc - suppression coil grounding) Resistance grounding system (including small resistance, medium resistance and high resistance)   Large current grounding system For 110kV and above system. Single-phase earthing in the system, the other two relatively basic constant voltage, system overvoltage is low, good for 110 kv and above system restrain overvoltage, but this earth current is very big, the operation equipment is difficult to for a…

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The GPS outputs NMEA0183 Code The whole earth is divided into two fourteenth time zones, with each time zone having its own local time. In international radio communications, for the sake of uniformity, use a unified Time, called Universal Time Coordinated. The UTC, like Greenwich Mean Time on average, is the same as in London, England. GPS is NMEA0183 code output, the GPGGA and GPRMC are clearly defined, such as: $GPGGA, 100639.00, 3109.79801, N, 12123.38493 E, 1,07,1.20, 21.9 M, 8.0…

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The 4-2OmA current loop has been with us for so long that it's become rather taken for granted in the industrial and process sectors alike. Its popularity comes from its ease of use and its performance. However, just because something is that ubiquitous doesn't mean we're all necessarily getting the best out of our current loops. A big benefit of the current loop is its simple wiring just the two wires. The supply voltage and measuring current are supplied over…

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NTP has been under development for almost 30 years, but the paint ain't dry even now. This release of the NTP Version 4 (NTPv4) distribution for Unix, VMS and Windows incorporates new features and refinements, but retaining backwards compatibility with older versions, including NTPv3 and NTPv2, but not NTPv1. Support for NTPv1 has been discontinued because of certain security vulnerabilities. New Features The behavior of the daemon at startup has been considerably improved. The time to measure the frequency and…

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GPS device relies on the radio signals sent by the GNSS network situated in earth's orbit. The GNSS regularly send signals to aid millions of GPS users. The accuracy of GPS depends on the GPS signal strength that may degrade due to several reasons. The article discusses weak signal GPS.   Current GPS – Optimal Satellite Positioning and StructureCurrent GPS System Millions of GPS users across the world are dependent on the signals sent by the GNSS network in the…

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The Importance of Monitoring of Smart Meters   In the more than 100 years history of the electric power industry, "smart meters" is still in the early stages of deployment and use. Because of the electric meter is the front end of the electric power company "register", must be very accurate.Although there are a large number of requirements for the meters, performance specifications and regulations, and electric power company is trying to ensure the accuracy of meter, but in fact,…

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